English 1201

 

To Kill a Mockingbird Notes

 

Chapter 1

 

·         The opening chapter introduces the narrator, Scout Finch, her family, and her hometown of Maycomb, Alabama.

·         After briefly sketching the history of her family in the community, Scout brings the story up to the present time – the early 1930s.

·         Maycomb, like the rest of America, is in the midst of the Great Depression, though the Finch family is better-off than many around them.

·         It’s a time and place where segregation between blacks and whites is accepted by almost everyone as a natural part of life.

·         Many of the story’s main characters are introduced here:

·         Jean Louise (“Scout”) Finch, a six-year-old girl who prefers to wear overalls and climb trees rather than more typical “girls’” pursuits.  Scout is the narrator, telling the story from the perspective of an adult looking back on her childhood.

·         Jem Finch, Scout’s older brother, nine years old when the story begins.

·         Atticus Finch, their father. Atticus is a lawyer, widowed, and older than most of the fathers of their friends.

·         Calpurnia, the Finch family’s cook and housekeeper, who provides most of the children’s daily care. Like almost all domestic servants who worked for white families at that time, Calpurnia is black.

·         Charles Baker (“Dill”) Harris, seven-year-old boy who comes to stay with his aunt, next door to the Finch family.  He is an odd but inventive little boy who becomes Scout’s and Jem’s closest friend during the summer months.

·         This opening chapter also introduces the mysterious neighbor, Boo Radley, who never comes out of his house.  Coaxing Boo out of the house becomes an obsession for the children.

·         The children learn from the town gossip, Miss Stephanie Crawford, that Boo Radley got in some minor trouble as a young man and that his father locked him up in the house.  Later, he was reported to have stabbed his father in the leg. The Radley family continued to keep him locked up, and Boo (whose real name is Arthur) has not been seen in Maycomb for many years.

·         Myths and legends have sprung up around Boo Radley that depict him as fearsome monster who comes out at night to terrorize people.

·         The children are both frightened and fascinated by him.  Dill dares Jem to go up to the Radley house.  Jem finally agrees to do it, running up and touching the house, then running away as quickly as possible.

·         Only the faint flicker of a shutter indoors suggests that someone inside may have seen Jem.


English 1201

 

To Kill a Mockingbird Notes

 

 

Chapters 2 – 3

 

·         Summer ends, Dill leaves Maycomb, and Scout and Jem go to school.

·         Scout’s first day in Grade One doesn’t go well. Her teacher, Miss Caroline, seems unprepared to cope with the children of Maycomb.

·         Miss Caroline learns that Scout can already read – a skill she has picked up by sitting with Atticus while he reads the newspaper aloud to her. Miss Caroline tells Scout that she isn’t allowed to read with her father anymore.

·         Through this chapter we learn a little about some of the other families in the community. One of Scout’s  classmates is Walter Cunningham, whose farming family are very poor, but too proud to accept charity or handouts.

·         Scout gets in trouble for trying to explain to the teacher why Walter won’t accept a quarter to buy his lunch.

·         At lunchtime, Scout beats up Walter Cunningham, since she thinks it’s his fault she got in trouble. But Jem intervenes and invites Walter home for lunch with them.

·         In the afternoon, back at school, we meet another member of the Maycomb community. Burris Ewell, in Scout’s class, is the youngest of the Ewell family, children of a worthless drunk who live near the town dump and come to school only on the first day to get their names in the register. A run-in with Burris leaves Miss Caroline in tears.

·         At the end of the day, Scout tells Atticus she’s not going back to school.  She explains that the teacher has forbidden her to read, and since she doesn’t want to give up reading, she’s decided to quit school.

·         Atticus offers a compromise: he will continue to read with Scout (without the teacher having to know about it) if she agrees to return to Grade One. Scout agrees, somewhat reluctantly.


English 1201

To Kill a Mockingbird Notes

 

Chapters 4 – 5

 

·         One day during her uninspiring year in Grade One, Scout finds two pieces of chewing gum in the hollow of a tree on the Radley lot.  Jem tells her to spit it out.

·         On the last day of school, walking past the  Radley lot, the children find a box with two antique pennies in it.  Jem puts them away for safekeeping.

·         Dill returns for summer holidays, and the children resume their fascination with Boo Radley and the Radley house.

·         One day, when the children are rolling down the street inside an old tire, Scout rolls into the Radley yard and her tire bumps against the Radley steps.

·         As they retreat from the yard in terror, Scout decides not to tell Jem that she heard faint laughter from inside the house.

·         Jem organizes the others into acting out the life of the Radley family, as they know it from the town gossip.

·         Atticus catches the children playing the game and forbids them from doing it anymore, though they insist they are just acting out a story and it has nothing to do with the Radleys.

·         Feeling left out because Jem and Dill are excluding her from some of their games, Scout starts hanging around a friendly neighbour, Miss Maudie Atkinson, who allows them to play in her yard.

·         Scout asks Miss Maudie about Boo Radley, and discovers that rather than being scared of him as many people are, Miss Maudie feels sorry for him and describes the Radley house as “a sad house,” largely because the late Mr. Radley was so harsh and strict.

·         Dill and Jem’s next plan is to send Boo Radley a note (by putting it in through his window with a fishing pole) asking him to come out of the house.

·         Again, Atticus catches them in the act and tells the children to leave the Radleys alone.

 

Chapter 6

 

·         On the last night of summer holidays, Dill and Jem plan to sneak up to the Radley house and look through a back window.

·         Scout goes along, very reluctantly.

·         They get as far as the window but are scared away when someone appears on the porch.  As they escape through the garden, a shotgun goes off.

·         Jem gets stuck crawling through the fence and has to leave his pants behind.  The children return home to find the neighbours gathered around the Radley house, saying that Mr. Nathan Radley (Boo’s older brother) shot at an intruder in his garden.

·         Dill explains the absence of Jem’s pants to Atticus by claiming he won Jem’s pants in a game of strip poker.

·         During the night, Jem sneaks out to retrieve his pants, leaving a terrified Scout to wait for him. He returns a little later, unhurt but obviously shaken, though he tells Scout nothing about what happened.


English 1201

To Kill a Mockingbird Notes

 

 

Chapter 7

 

·         Jem eventually confides in Scout that on the night he returned to the Radley house, he found his pants neatly folded across the fence, with the rip in them awkwardly sewn up -- as if someone was expecting him.

·         As they begin walking past the Radley place again on the way to school, the children find more objects in the tree -- most surprisingly, two hand-carved soap figures of a boy and girl that resemble Jem and Scout, and a pocket watch.

·         Jem and Scout decide to write a note thanking the mysterious person who puts gifts in the tree for them, but when they get there to deliver it, they find Mr. Nathan Radley has plugged the knot-hole with cement.

·         He claims it’s because the tree is dying, though when the children ask Atticus about the tree he says it looks healthy to him.

 

Chapter 8

 

·         That winter, Maycomb experiences a rare snowfall -- the first Scout has ever seen -- and school is closed for the day.

·         The children attempt to make a snowman, although since there’s not enough snow they are forced to make a mud-man and cover it with snow.

·         During that night, they are awakened because their neighbour Miss Maudie’s house is on fire.

·         As everyone stands out in the chilly night watching the fire, someone silently comes up and slips a blanket around Scout’s shoulders.  Atticus and Jem conclude that Boo Radley probably slipped out of his house and did it without Scout even noticing.

·         Jem is already starting to connect Boo Radley to the gifts in the tree and conclude he may not be so scary after all, though Scout has not yet reached that conclusion.

 

Chapter 9

 

·         Atticus’s decision to defend a black man, Tom Robinson -- not just to go through the motions, but to make a serious attempt to prove him innocent -- begins to have consequences for Scout and Jem, since most of the white people in Maycomb disapprove of what Atticus is doing.

·         First, Scout gets into a fight with a boy at school who says her daddy “defends niggers” (a word Atticus tells Scout she should never use).

·         Then, over Christmas, the Finch family visits their relatives at Finch’s Landing.

·         There, Scout fights with her cousin Francis, who calls her father a “nigger-lover.”

·         Later, Scout overhears her father discussing the Tom Robinson case with her Uncle Jack. He says that he knows that his children will have to hear “some ugly things” because of this trial.


English 1201

To Kill a Mockingbird Notes

 

Chapter 10

 

·         Criticism of Atticus in the community continues, which contributes to Scout and Jem’s feeling that their father is sometimes a bit of an embarrassment. 

·         Jem, particularly, seems to resent the fact that Atticus is older, not athletic, and doesn’t seem as impressive as their friends’ fathers.

·         While they both love Atticus, the children feel they would like to admire and be proud of him as well.

·         Atticus seems uninterested in all sorts of “manly” pursuits -- when their Uncle Jack gave them air rifles for Christmas, Atticus left it to Jack to teach the children to shoot.

·         All Atticus told them was that they could shoot blue jays if they wanted to, but “it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird” -- the only time Scout ever remembers hearing her father call anything “a sin.”

·         The children’s opportunity to be impressed with their father comes one day when a rabid dog is seen on Maycomb’s main street.

·         Calpurnia makes the children stay inside the house and calls Atticus.

·         When Atticus arrives with Heck Tate, the sheriff, they agree the dog has to be shot, but Mr. Tate asks Atticus to shoot him.

·         Atticus fells the mad dog with a single shot to the head.

·         Miss Maudie tells the children their father was once “the deadest shot in Maycomb County, but that he gave it up and no longer shoots anything unless it’s necessary.

 

Chapter 11

 

·         When a particularly nasty old lady in the neighbourhood, Mrs. Dubose, criticizing Atticus for defending Tom Robinson, Jem snaps.

·         He attacks Mrs. Dubose’s garden, knocking the flowers off all her prized camellia bushes.

·         When Atticus finds out, he sends Jem to apologize.  In return, Mrs. Dubose asks Jem to come read to her every day after school for two hours, and Atticus tells him to do it.

·         Scout accompanies Jem on this strange assignment, reading aloud to the horrible Mrs. Dubose, who seems to pay little attention but appears to be having seizures while he reads.

·         After a month, Atticus tells Jem he can stop reading to Mrs. Dubose.

·         Not long afterwards, he tells the children that Mrs. Dubose is dead.

·         Atticus then tells the children that Mrs. Dubose was very ill and was addicted to the morphine she was given for the pain.

·         Although she needed the drug and would have been in worse agony without it, it was important to Mrs. Dubose to break that addiction before she died, so she could “leave this world beholden to nothing and nobody.”

·         The purpose of the reading was to distract her while she went through withdrawal, allowing her to quit the morphine entirely before she died.

·         Mrs. Dubose leaves Jem a gift -- a box with one perfect camellia flower.

·         Atticus explains that, even though he and Mrs. Dubose had their differences, he wanted the children to respect her courage. He tells them:

·         “Courage [isn’t] a man with a gun in his hand. It’s when you know you’re licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do.”

 

English 1201

 

To Kill a Mockingbird

 

Chapter 12 Notes

 

·         This chapter begins Part Two of the book, where the trial of Tom Robinson begins to take centre stage in the story.

·         It’s the summer after Scout’s second grade year, and Dill has not come to Maycomb; his mother has remarried and he is staying with her and his stepfather.

·         One Sunday while Atticus is away, Calpurnia takes the children to her church -- the black church.

·         Everyone there welcomes them warmly, except one woman named Lula who says Calpurnia has no business bringing them.

·         The children find it different from their own church; there are no hymnbooks, since the church can’t afford them and most of the congregation can’t read, so the songleader calls out each line of the hymn.

·         The church takes up a collection to benefit the family of Tom Robinson, whose wife Helen is finding it difficult to get work since Tom was arrested.

 

 

Chapter 13 & 14

 

·         To Scout’s great dismay, Aunt Alexandra, Atticus’s older sister, arrives to stay with them.

·         Her self-imposed mission is to care for the children, and especially to make Scout into a little lady, which Scout resents greatly.

·         She tries to instill in them a sense of family pride, which makes Atticus a little uncomfortable, since he has difficulty telling his children their family is “better” than others in the community.

·         One night, Scout finds Dill hiding under her bed -- he has run away from home.

·         Scout agrees to keep him hidden, but Jem tells Atticus.

·         Dill explains to Scout that he ran away because his mother and stepfather didn’t seem to need him there -- they didn’t care whether he was around or not.

 


English 1201

To Kill a Mockingbird Notes

 

Chapter 15

 

·         After Atticus contacts Dill’s family, they agree that he can stay in Maycomb for the summer.

·         One evening, the children overhear a conversation between Atticus and the sheriff, Heck Tate, about Tom Robinson.

·         Sherrif Tate is concerned that Tom will be attacked (possibly killed) in jail before his case comes to trial, by people who believe he shouldn’t even have a trial.

·         The night before the trial, Atticus goes alone to the town jail. Scout, Jem and Dill follow him to see what’s going on.

·         They find Atticus sitting alone in front of the jail, reading. The children watch as a group of men from the outskirts of town arrive, clearly intending to threaten Tom Robinson. Atticus bars their way.

·         Scout, not fully understanding what’s going on, runs out of her hiding place and greets her father, who is not at all happy to see her.

·         Atticus tells Jem to take Scout and Dill home at once, but Jem refuses.

·         One of the men intervenes and grabs Jem, while another tells Atticus he has fifteen seconds to get the children out of there.

·         Scout suddenly recognizes one of the men as Mr. Cunningham, father of her classmate Walter.  She innocently greets him and tells him to say hello to Walter, although by this time even she realizes the atmosphere is awkward.

·         After Scout’s interruption, the men quietly disperse, having apparently abandoned their plan.

·         Mr. Underwood, editor of the Maycomb Tribune, then reveals that he has been sitting in his office window all the time with a shotgun. He tells Atticus he didn’t need to worry; Mr. Underwood had him covered the whole time.

·         Atticus walks home with Jem, Scout and Dill.

 

Chapter 16 Notes

 

·         After some discussion of the previous night’s events -- in which Atticus tells the children that many of the men in the mob that night, like Mr. Cunningham, were basically good people with “blind spots” -- he leaves for the courthouse.

·         Jem, Scout and Dill watch as almost the whole town goes by to see Tom Robinson’s trial.

·         Jem and Scout point out Mr. Dolphus Raymond, a wealthy white man who prefers the company of Negroes, and who has a black wife and mixed-race children. Mr. Raymond is always seen drinking out of a paper bag and everyone  assumes that his alcoholism explains his eccentric behavior.

·         The children go into the courthouse but it’s so crowded they can’t find seats.

·         They meet Reverend Sykes, the minister from the black church, and he invites them to sit in the “colored balcony” with him.


English 1201

To Kill a Mockingbird

 

Chapter 17

 

·         The trial begins with testimony by Heck Tate, the sheriff of Maycomb County.

·         He is being examined by the prosecuting attorney, Mr. Gilmer.

·         Tate’s testimony is that he was called by Bob Ewell to come to the Ewell house on the night of Nov. 21, because his daughter Mayella had been raped.

·         Tate testifies that Mayella was lying on the floor looking “pretty well beat up,” and identified Tom Robinson as the man who beat and raped her.

·         Atticus, as Tom Robinson’s defense attorney, then cross-examines Heck Tate. He asks if a doctor was ever called to examine Mayella Ewell, and Tate says no, it wasn’t necessary.

·         Atticus then asks Heck Tate to describe Mayella’s injuries in details.

·         The testimony reveals Mayella had bruises around her neck as if someone had tried to choke her, and bruises on the right side of her face as if she had been beaten by someone using primarily their left hand.

·         The next witness is Bob Ewell, Mayella’s father.  He is an arrogant, unpleasant little man.

·         He tells his version of the events of November 21, which is that he was outside the house, heard Mayella scream, and ran to the window to see Tom Robinson raping his daughter.

·         Atticus gets up to cross-examine Bob Ewell, who is even more disrespectful to Atticus than he was to his own lawyer.

·         Atticus again confirms that no doctor was called for Mayella (this suggests there is no medical evidence to prove she was actually raped).

·         He also asks Bob Ewell if he agrees with the sheriff’s description of Mayella’s injuries, which he does.

·         Atticus then asks Bob Ewell to sign his name, and observes that he is left-handed.

·         Scout -- who reports these proceedings without fully understanding the significance of some of the testimony -- recognizes that Atticus is trying to prove Bob Ewell could have beaten Mayella himself.

 

 


To Kill a Mockingbird

Chapter 18 Notes

 

·         The next witness called is Mayella Ewell, a nervous, poorly educated nineteen-year-old girl.

·         She testifies to Mr. Gilmer that on Nov. 21 she asked Tom Robinson, whom she did not know previously, to come in her yard and “bust up a chiffarobe” -- i.e. to chop up an old dresser for firewood.

·         She claims Tom Robinson then followed her into the house, beat and raped her.

·         Atticus next cross-examines Mayella, who is scared and suspicious of him and thinks he is making fun of her when he calls her “ma’am.”

·         He gets her to reveal a little about her life, painting a picture of poverty, neglect, and abuse.

·         Atticus then gets Mayella to repeat her story of the attack and asks her to identify Tom Robinson as the man who attacked her.

·         When Tom stands, everyone in the courtroom can see his left arm is shorter than the right, paralyzed and useless due to an accident years before.

·         Still, Mayella sticks firmly to her story that Tom Robinson beat her, threw her to the ground, and raped her.

·         The prosecution rests its case, and Atticus gets ready to call his only witness for the defense -- Tom Robinson.

 

 

Chapter 19 Notes

 

·         Atticus calls Tom Robinson to the trial to tell his version of what happened between him and Mayella Ewell.

·         Tom’s story is very different from the Ewells’.  He claims that Mayella did call him into the yard to chop up a chiffarobe, but that event happened months earlier, and that he continued to do chores for her occasionally.

·         Under Atticus’s questioning, Tom reluctantly admits that on Nov. 21, Mayella invited him into the house while her father and siblings were all away.

·         Tom says that Mayella kissed him and asked him to kiss her back. While he tried to resist without hurting her, Bob Ewell saw them through the window and yelled that he would kill Mayella.

·         At this point, Tom says he ran away.

·         Mr. Gilmer’s cross-examination is very hard on Tom, but he sticks to his story.

·         The low point comes when he admits that he did chores for Mayella because he felt sorry for her -- the spectators are shocked that any black man would have the nerve to pity a white person, even one as low on the social ladder as Mayella Ewell.

·         Scout and Jem don’t get to hear the end of the cross-examination, because Dill starts to cry loudly and they have to take him out of the courtroom.

 

 


To Kill a Mockingbird

Chapters 20 - 21 Notes

 

·         Outside the courthouse, the children have a revealing conversation with the mysterious Mr. Dolphus Raymond, who turns out to have nothing more sinister in his paper bag than a bottle of Coca-Cola.

·         He tells the children that he pretends to be a drunk because it makes it easier for other white people to accept the way he lives.  He says they would never understand that he lives with a black woman and spends his time mainly with black people simply because that’s the way he wants to live.

·         Mr. Raymond seems to admire the fact that Dill is sensitive enough to cry over what he’s seen in the courtroom; he says that in a few years he’ll just accept “the hell white people give colored folks, without even stopping to think they’re people too.”

·         He also tells Scout that “your pa’s not a run-of-the-mill man.”

·         Back inside the courtroom, the children return in time to hear Atticus’s summation to the jury.

·         Atticus’s speech is an impassioned plea for justice.  He reminds the court that there is no physical evidence to prove that Tom Robinson ever raped Mayella Ewell, and no reason to believe that the Ewells are trustworthy or their story believable.

·         He argues that Mayella accused Tom of rape to cover her own guilt after her father caught her breaking “a rigid and time-honored code of our society” – pursuing a black man.

·         Atticus points out that after hearing Mayella’s testimony, the jury may feel sorry for her, but their pity should not allow her to take a man’s life.

·         Only after this speech, when the jury leaves to deliberate on the case, does Atticus learn that Scout and Jem have been in the courtroom for the whole thing. He sends them home with Calpurnia for supper, but says they may return later to hear the verdict if the jury stays out for that long.

·         When they return from supper, the jury is still out – and remains out for several hours. 

·         Jem is confident Atticus has won the case for Tom, though Reverend Sykes warns he has never seen a jury take a black man’s word over a white man’s.

·         Sure enough, when the jury finally returns, they all declare that they have found Tom Robinson guilty of murder. 

·         The children are still in shock from the verdict when Reverend Sykes tells Scout to stand up.  All around them, everyone in the “colored balcony” is standing as a mark of respect for Atticus as he leaves the courtroom.

 

 


To Kill a Mockingbird

Chapters 22 – 23 Notes

 

·         Over the next few days, there is plenty of reaction in Maycomb to the trial.  While the children are upset about the verdict, Atticus feels that it represents progress – the jury in such a case would normally find the man guilty after only a few minutes’ deliberation, rather than taking hours.

·         Atticus plans to appeal Tom’s case to a higher court and feels they have a good chance on appeal.

·         The black community of Maycomb is deeply grateful to Atticus, and many send gifts of food to the Finch household.

·         Miss Maudie explains to the children that many people in the community admire the stand Atticus has taken in defending Tom, even if they don’t come out and say it.

·         One person who definitely does not admire Atticus is Bob Ewell, who sees him on the street the next day and spits in his face.

·         Bob Ewell also threatens to kill Atticus, which worries the children, but not Atticus, who says Bob Ewell is all talk and no action, and would never actually harm him.

·         Aunt Alexandra has another talk with Scout about people being of “good family,” which Scout totally doesn’t  understand, although it does leave her trying to figure out the social classes system of Maycomb County.

·         She finally concludes that “I think there’s just one kind of folks. Folks.”

·         Jem says he thought that too, when he was her age, but “If there’s just one kind of folks, why can’t they get along with each other?”

 

 

Chapters 24 – 25 Notes

 

·         Scout is stuck at home while Aunt Alexandra hosts a group of church ladies at the Finch home.

·         She overhears the women’s conversations about a missionary speaker they have recently heard and his heroic work in Africa.

·         Interspersed with this conversation are the women’s reflections on the Tom Robinson trial and how upset their black servants seem to be about the verdict.

·         Hearing the two conversations juxtaposed, the reader has a clear impression that the women of Maycomb are concerned about the plight of Africans in Africa, but are happy to turn a blind eye to injustice against African-Americans in their own community.

·         In the midst of this meeting, Atticus arrives to ask Calpurnia to come with him out to the black community, where he has to visit Helen Robinson with the tragic news that her husband Tom was shot while trying to escape from prison.

·         Later, Jem tells Scout that on the way to the Robinson house, Atticus picked up Jem and Dill who were coming back from swimming, and they came along with him.

·         Jem describes Helen Robinson falling to ground in shock when she heard Atticus’s news.

·         The general opinion in the community is that, since Tom’s case was going to be appealed, it was stupid and short-sighted of him to attempt escape.

·         The only outrage is shown by the newspaper editor, Mr. Underwood, who “likened Tom’s death to the senseless slaughter of songbirds by hunters and children” (another allusion to the novel’s title).

·         Bob Ewell, hearing of Tom’s death, is reported as having said that made it one down and about two more to go.


To Kill a Mockingbird

 

Chapters 26 – 27 Notes

 

·         The school year starts again, with Scout in third grade.  The memory of the Tom Robinson case still hangs over the community, but people rarely discuss it in front of the Finch children.

·         Scout is confused as to why her teacher is so angry about Hitler’s hatred of the Jews, yet the teacher herself is so prejudiced against Negroes. When she tries to ask Jem about it, he gets angry and doesn’t want to talk.

·         A few small incidents in the community make it evident that Bob Ewell still carries a grudge for the events of the court case.

·         Bob loses short-lived make-work job and blames Atticus

·         Judge Taylor hears an intruder in his house

·         Mr. Link Deas, Tom Robinson’s former employer, stands up to Bob Ewell after he begins tormenting Tom’s widow Helen, who now works for Mr. Deas.

·         Aunt Alexandra again warns Atticus to beware of Bob Ewell, and Atticus again brushes off her concern, claiming that Ewell poses no real threat.

·         On Hallowe’en night, Jem and Scout leave for a pageant at the schoolhouse, with Scout dressed as a ham for a program highlighting the agricultural products of Maycomb County.  Neither Atticus nor Aunt Alexandra feels up to accompanying them, so they go alone.

 

 


To Kill a Mockingbird

Chapters 28 – 31 Notes

 

·         The pageant ends with Scout, who has fallen asleep backstage and missed her cue, rushing onto the stage in her ham costume along with the state flag.  Embarrassed, she makes Jem wait backstage with her till everyone has gone so they can be the last to leave.

·         Returning home in complete darkness, Scout still in her ham costume and having to be guided by Jem, the children realize someone is following them.

·         At first they think it’s their school friend Cecil Jacobs, but when Jem realizes they are in real danger he orders Scout to run.

·         Scout tries to escape but falls over and can’t get up again.  She hears the sounds of a struggle, feels Jem pulled away from her, and hears Jem scream.

·         Still unable to see what’s happening, Scout is grabbed by an unseen assailant, who is then pulled off her by someone else. She realizes that a fourth person has joined them, but doesn’t know either who has attacked them, or who intervened to save them.

·         Scout finally gets free to find someone lying in the dirt, and someone else carrying Jem towards the Finch house.

·         At home, Atticus and Aunt Alexandra care for Jem and Scout, and call both the doctor and the sheriff.

·         When the doctor comes, Scout learns that Jem’s arm is broken and that he’s unconscious, but that he will be fine.

·         The sheriff, Heck Tate, arrives and reports that he has found Bob Ewell dead under a tree nearby, stabbed with a kitchen knife.

·         As Scout tells her version of the attack to the sheriff, she points out to him the man who saved them and who brought Jem home.  For the first time she recognizes and says hello to Mr. Arthur Radley – or, as she says, “Hey, Boo.”

·         Scout listens to Atticus and Heck Tate discuss the case. Atticus seems to believe it was Jem who stabbed Bob Ewell, and is concerned what this will mean for Jem’s future, even if he did it in self-defense.

·         Heck Tate, however, is determined that the official story will be that in the struggle, Bob Ewell fell on his own knife and killed himself.  Tate says he is not trying to protect Jem, but Arthur Radley, the person who he believes actually killed Bob Ewell.

·         Atticus agrees to accept Sheriff Tate’s official version of events, especially after Tate points out that being dragged into the light of publicity would destroy a recluse like Arthur Radley, and Scout agrees, “It’d be sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird.” 

·         Atticus tuns to Boo Radley and says, “Thank you for my children, Arthur.”

·         Scout walks home with Boo Radley, who still has not said a word other than “Will you take me home?”

·         Standing on the porch of the Radley house, Scout experiences what it’s like to see the world from someone else’s perspective.  She imagines how Arthur Radley has watched his neighbour’s lives pass by, and how a threat to the two children, Scout and Jem, finally forced him out of his house after all these years.

·         Boo Radley goes inside, and Scout says, “I never saw him again.”  She returns home to find Atticus sitting up by Jem’s bed, and convinces him to read her a story until she falls asleep.